U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Vanadium Nitride VN, Vanadium Nitride VN Overview, Vanadium Nitride VN Application, Vanadium Nitride VN Supplier, Vanadium Nitride VN Price.
Overview of vanadium nitride VN powder
Vanadium nitride is formed during the nitriding process of steel and increases wear resistance. During the nitridation process, another phase V2N (also known as vanadium nitride) can be formed together with VN. VN has a cubic rock salt structure. There is also a low-temperature form, which contains the V4 cluster. The low temperature phase is caused by dynamic instability when the vibrational mode energy in the high temperature NaCl structural phase drops below zero.
Vanadium nitride is a strongly coupled superconductor. Nanocrystalline vanadium nitride is said to have potential for use in supercapacitors. The properties of vanadium nitride are sensitively dependent on the stoichiometry of the material.
How is vanadium nitride VN powder produced?
The samples made of ammonium metavanadate powder and carbon powder were pre-reduced in a heating furnace, followed by final reduction. After the final reduction is completed, the sample is cooled with the furnace, and the obtained sample is vanadium nitride; in the process, the temperature in the heating furnace is 650-670° C., and the holding time of the heating furnace is 2-4 hours. Under the conditions of this temperature and holding time, the surface of the sample can be prevented from melting and hindering the reduction reaction.
After pre-reduction, the main reduction product of the sample is V2O3, and the rest are carbides and a small amount of VN; in the final reduction process, the sample is kept at 1300-1500 °C. CO gas and CO gas are generated during the insulation process. The introduced nitrogen gas is taken away, and VN is obtained after the insulation is completed; the nitrogen flow rate during the reaction is 210-270 mL/min, which can not only meet the kinetic conditions of the reduction reaction, but also prevent the reaction temperature caused by too much nitrogen. reduce and waste nitrogen;
Application of vanadium nitride VN powder
Vanadium nitride has high wear resistance, which can greatly improve vanadium steel after nitriding.
The comprehensive mechanical properties of high-strength steel, such as strength, toughness, ductility, and thermal fatigue resistance, endow the steel with good weldability. In the case of achieving the same strength, adding vanadium nitride can save 20-40% of the vanadium addition, thereby reducing the cost.
Vanadium-nitrogen alloys can be used in structural steel, tool steel, tubular steel, rebar and cast iron. Vanadium Nitride Alloys for High Strength Low Alloy Steels
Vanadium nitride can carry out effective vanadium-nitrogen microalloying at the same time, promote the precipitation of carbon, vanadium and nitrogen compounds in steel, and play a more effective role in strengthening sedimentation and refinement.
Adding vanadium nitride to steel can improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of steel such as strength, toughness, ductility and thermal fatigue resistance, so that the steel has good weldability.
In the case of achieving the same strength, adding vanadium nitride can save 30-40% of the vanadium addition, thereby reducing the cost. Vanadium-nitrogen alloys can be used in structural steel, tool steel, tubular steel, rebar and cast iron.
The vanadium-nitrogen alloy used for high-strength low-alloy steel can simultaneously carry out effective vanadium-nitrogen microalloying, promote the precipitation of carbon, vanadium and nitrogen compounds in the steel, and play a more effective role in sedimentation strengthening and graining. refinement.
Vanadium nitride VN powder price
The price of vanadium nitride VN powder will change randomly with the production cost, transportation cost, international situation, exchange rate, market supply and demand and other factors of vanadium nitride VN powder. Tanki New Materials Co.,Ltd aims to help various industries and chemical wholesalers find high-quality, low-cost nanomaterials and chemicals by providing a full range of customized services. If you are looking for vanadium nitride VN powder, please feel free to send an inquiry to get the latest price of vanadium nitride VN powder.
Vanadium nitride VN powder suppliers
As a global vanadium nitride VN powder supplier, Tanki New Materials Co.,Ltd. has extensive experience in the performance, application and cost-effective manufacturing of advanced and engineered materials. The company has successfully developed a series of powder materials (molybdenum disilicide, lanthanum nitride (LaN powder, calcium silicide, iron boride), high-purity targets, functional ceramics and structural devices, and provides OEM services.
|Technical Parameter of Vanadium Nitride VN powder:|
|Product Name||MF||Purity||Particle Size||Specific Surface Area||Volume Density||Color|
|Chemical Composition of Vanadium Nitride VN powder:|
|Vanadium Nitride VN Powder Properties|
|Other Names||Vanadium nitride, Vanadium(III) nitride, VN powder|
|Solubility in water||N/A|
|Vanadium Nitride VN Powder Health & Safety Information|
Commodities such as crude oil, wheat, cotton, and nickel have rallied since Russia's "special military operations" began in late February. On the last trading day of this quarter, commodities were on track for their biggest gain since 1990. For this reason, it is expected that the price of the Vanadium Nitride VN, Vanadium Nitride VN Overview, Vanadium Nitride VN Application, Vanadium Nitride VN Supplier, Vanadium Nitride VN Price will continue to increase.
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